The U.S. Government Has a Long and Unbroken Record of Working With Fascists, Dictators, Drug-Lords, and State Sponsors of Terrorism. The Trail of Blood From This Carnage and Chaos Leads Directly Back to the Steps of the U.S. Capitol and the White House,Biden Is a Bad Actor

 

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U.S. clients and puppets have committed the greatest atrocities known to man, from murder and torture to coups and genocide, behind a wall of impunity and protection from the State Department and the CIA. The blood trail left by this violence and anarchy runs right back to the steps of the United States Capitol and the White House. "The concept of an honest puppet is a paradox Washington has failed to overcome everywhere in the globe since 1945," historian Gabriel Kolko remarked in 1988. What follows is a quick rundown of the failure's history.

Afghanistan is number one.

In the 1980s, the United States collaborated with Pakistan and Saudi Arabia to destabilize Afghanistan's socialist government. It provided funding, training, and weapons to troops commanded by traditionalist tribal chiefs whose dominance was endangered by their country's development in education, women's rights, and land reform. Following the withdrawal of Soviet troops by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1989, these US-backed warlords tore the nation apart and increased opium production to an unparalleled level of 2,000 to 3,400 tons per year. Between 1999 and 2001, the Taliban regime reduced opium production by 95%, but the US invasion in 2001 returned the warlords and drug lords to power. Afghanistan presently ranks 175th out of 177 nations for corruption, 175th out of 186 for human development, and has generated an astounding 5,300 tons of opium each year since 2004. Ahmed Wali Karzai, President Karzai's brother, was a well-known CIA-backed drug kingpin. Colonel Abdul Razziq was named provincial police head after a big US attack in Kandahar province in 2011, bolstering a heroin smuggling business that already made him $60 million per year in one of the world's poorest nations.

Albania No. 2

Between 1949 and 1953, the United States and the United Kingdom sought out to destabilize the government of Albania, the smallest and most vulnerable communist republic in Eastern Europe. Exiles were recruited and trained to return to Albania in order to incite discontent and prepare a violent rebellion. Many of the exiles participating in the scheme had previously worked with the Italian and German occupying forces during WWII. Former Interior Minister Xhafer Deva was among them, having overseen the deportation of "Jews, Communists, partisans, and suspicious individuals" to Auschwitz, as documented in a Nazi document. Deva was one of 743 fascist war criminals recruited by the US after the war, according to declassified US papers.

Argentina is third.

Declassified US records from 2003 describe meetings between US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Argentinian Foreign Minister Admiral Guzzetti in October 1976, just after Argentina's military dictatorship took control. Kissinger expressly supported the junta's "dirty war," in which it killed up to 30,000 people, the majority of whom were youngsters, and abducted 400 children from the homes of their deceased parents. "Look, our fundamental approach is that we want you to succeed... the sooner you achieve, the better," Kissinger said Guzzetti. Guzzetti "returned in a frenzy of joy, satisfied that there is no actual dispute with the US administration over that matter," according to the US Ambassador in Buenos Aires. ("Presente!" Daniel Gandolfo!)

Brazil is number four.

General Castelo Branco launched a coup in 1964 that resulted in 20 years of ruthless military tyranny. Vernon Walters, subsequently Deputy Director of the CIA and UN Ambassador, had known Castelo Branco since World War II in Italy. Walters' documents from Brazil were never released since he was a covert CIA operative, but the CIA gave all the assistance required to assure the coup's success, including money for opposing labor and student organizations in street rallies, as in Ukraine and Venezuela today. A US Marine amphibious force stationed in Sao Paolo was not required. The elected President Joao Goulart, like other victims of US-backed coups in Latin America, was a wealthy landowner, not a communist, but his efforts to remain neutral in the Cold War were as unacceptable to Washington as President Yanukovich's refusal to hand over Ukraine to the West 50 years later.

Cambodia No. 5

When President Nixon authorized the illegal and covert bombing of Cambodia in 1969, American pilots were told to falsify their records in order to cover up their crimes. They murdered at least 500,000 Cambodians by dumping more bombs on them than Germany and Japan combined in WWII. In 1973, as the Khmer Rouge gained momentum, the CIA stated that their "propaganda has been most successful among refugees exposed to B-52 raids." After the Khmer Rouge slaughtered at least 2 million of its own people and was finally driven out by the Vietnamese army in 1979, the United States Kampuchea Emergency Group, based at the United States Embassy in Bangkok, set out to feed and supply them as the "resistance" to the new Vietnamese-backed Cambodian government. The World Food Program contributed $12 million under US pressure to feed 20,000 to 40,000 Khmer Rouge troops. For at least another decade, the US Defense Information Agency supplied satellite intelligence to the Khmer Rouge, while US and British special forces instructed them to lay millions of land mines throughout Western Cambodia, killing or maiming hundreds of civilians each year.

6. Chile

When Salvador Allende was elected President of Chile in 1970, President Nixon threatened to "make the economy scream." Chile's major commercial partner, the United States, shut off trade, causing shortages and economic upheaval. For a decade, the CIA and State Department ran sophisticated propaganda operations in Chile, financing conservative politicians, parties, unions, student organizations, and all kinds of media while strengthening relations with the military. Following General Pinochet's takeover, the CIA maintained Chilean personnel on the payroll and collaborated closely with Chile's DINA intelligence agency while the military dictatorship murdered thousands of people and imprisoned and tortured tens of thousands more. Meanwhile, the "Chicago Boys," a group of over 100 Chilean students sent by the State Department to study under Milton Friedman at the University of Chicago, launched a radical program of privatization, deregulation, and neoliberal policies that kept the economy screaming for the majority of Chileans during Pinochet's 16-year military dictatorship.

7. China

By the end of 1945, 100,000 United States soldiers were fighting alongside Chinese Kuomintang (and Japanese) forces in Communist-held northern China. Chiang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang were perhaps the most corrupt of the United States' friends. A regular stream of US advisors in China warned that US assistance was being stolen and sold to the Japanese, but the US remained committed to Chiang throughout the war, his defeat by the Communists, and his administration of Taiwan. Secretary of State Dulles' brinkmanship on Chiang's behalf twice brought the United States to the brink of nuclear war with China, in 1955 and 1958, over Matsu and Qemoy, two tiny islands off China's coast.

Colombia is ranked eighth.

When US special forces and the Drug Enforcement Administration assisted Colombian troops in tracking down and killing drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, they collaborated with Los Pepes, a vigilante organization. Diego Murillo-Bejarano and other Los Pepes commanders co-founded the AUC (United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia) in 1997, which was responsible for 75 percent of Colombia's violent civilian murders over the following ten years.

9. Cuba

The US backed the Batista dictatorship as it imposed brutal circumstances that led to the Cuban Revolution, murdering up to 20,000 of its own citizens. According to former US Ambassador Earl Smith, "the US was so tremendously dominant in Cuba that the American Ambassador was the second most important man, often even more important than the Cuban president." Following the revolution, the CIA conducted a lengthy terrorist campaign against Cuba, training Cuban exiles in Florida, Central America, and the Dominican Republic to execute killings and destruction in Cuba. CIA-backed operations against Cuba included the attempted invasion at the Bay of Pigs, which killed 100 Cuban exiles and four Americans; several assassinations of Fidel Castro and successful assassinations of other officials; several bombing raids in 1960 (three Americans killed and two captured) and terrorist bombings targeting tourists as recently as 1997; the apparent bombing of a French ship in Havana harbor (at least 75 killed); a biological swine flu attack; The first President Bush awarded Bosch a presidential pardon.

ten. Salvador

The civil war that ravaged El Salvador in the 1980s was a public movement against a brutally controlled government. At least 70,000 people were murdered, with many more missing. The UN Truth Commission established after the conflict discovered that government troops and murder squads killed 95 percent of the deceased, while FLMN insurgents killed just 5 percent. The CIA, US special forces, and the US School of the Americas nearly fully formed, trained, equipped, and oversaw the government troops responsible for this one-sided killing. The UN Truth Commission discovered that the units responsible for the greatest crimes, such as the notorious El Mozote massacre, were exactly the ones most tightly monitored by American advisors. As the United States' war on terror expands its bloodshed and turmoil throughout the globe, top U.S. military leaders are hailing the American participation in this campaign of state terrorism as a model for "counter-insurgency" in Colombia and elsewhere.

France 11

At the close of World War II, advancing allied troops discovered that communist resistance groups had seized effective control of vast parts or even whole nations in France, Italy, Greece, Indochina, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines as German and Japanese forces retreated or surrendered. The CGT communist labor union controlled the ports of Marseille, which were important to commerce with the United States and the Marshall Plan. During the war, the OSS collaborated with the US-Sicilian mafia and Corsican criminals. So, after the war, when the OSS combined with the new CIA, it utilized its relationships to return Corsican mafia to power in Marseille, as well as to break dock strikes and CGT control of the ports. It shielded the Corsicans while they established heroin laboratories and started transporting heroin to New York, where the American-Sicilian mafia thrived under CIA protection. Contrary to popular belief, supply disruptions caused by the war and the Chinese Revolution reduced the number of heroin addicts in the United States to 20,000 by 1945, and heroin addiction could have been virtually eliminated, but the CIA's infamous French Connection instead brought a new wave of heroin addiction, organized crime, and drug-related violence to New York and other American cities.

12. Ghana

There do not seem to be any inspirational national leaders in Africa these days. But this might be America's fault. Kwame Nkrumah was a rising figure in Ghana throughout the 1950s and 1960s. He served as Prime Minister under British administration from 1952 to 1960, when Ghana gained independence and he was elected President. He was a socialist, pan-Africanist, and anti-imperialist who authored Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism in 1965. In 1966, Nkrumah was deposed in a CIA coup. The CIA denied participation at the time, but the British press afterwards stated that 40 CIA employees worked out of the US Embassy "distributing generosity among President Nkrumah's hidden foes," and that their efforts "were well rewarded." In his book In Search of Enemies, former CIA officer John Stockwell disclosed more about the CIA's pivotal participation in the coup.

Greece (13th)

When British troops arrived in Greece in October 1944, they found the nation effectively under the authority of ELAS-EAM, a leftist resistance organisation created by the Greek Communist Party following the Italian and German invasions in 1941. ELAS-EAM welcomed the British soldiers, but the British refused to make any concessions and formed a government comprised of royalists and Nazi collaborators. When ELAS-EAM staged a massive protest in Athens, police opened fire, killing 28 people. The British used personnel of Nazi-trained Security Battalions to track down and arrest ELAS members, who had taken up guns as part of a resistance movement. With a civil war developing, the insolvent British urged the United States to take up their position in occupied Greece in 1947. The United States' participation in assisting an inept fascist administration in Greece was inscribed in the "Truman Doctrine," which many historians see as the start of the Cold War. After Yugoslavia withdrew its backing in 1949, ELAS-EAM militants lay down their guns, and 100,000 were either killed, banished, or imprisoned. In 1967, a CIA-backed coup deposed liberal Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou, ushering in seven years of military administration. Andreas, his son, was elected Greece's first "socialist" president in 1981, although many ELAS-EAM members imprisoned in the 1940s were never released and perished in prison.

Guatemala 14

Following its first operation to destabilize a foreign government in Iran in 1953, the CIA started a more comprehensive effort in 1954 to destabilize the elected liberal government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. To invade Guatemala, the CIA recruited and trained a small army of mercenaries led by Guatemalan expatriate Castillo Armas, with 30 unmarked US aircraft providing air support. Armas was appointed as president after US Ambassador Peurifoy produced a list of Guatemalans to be killed. The subsequent reign of terror resulted in 40 years of civil conflict, during which at least 200,000 people were slaughtered, the majority of them were indigenous people. The war's culmination was President Rios Montt's genocide campaign in Ixil, for which he was convicted to life in jail in 2013, until Guatemala's Supreme Court acquitted him on a technicality. A fresh study is planned for 2015. Declassified CIA papers show that the Reagan administration was fully aware of Guatemalan military operations' indiscriminate and murderous character when it authorized further military supplies in 1981, including military vehicles, helicopter spare parts, and U.S. military trainers. According to the CIA records, "the army's well established view that the whole Ixil Indian community is pro-EGP (Guerrilla Army of the Poor) has produced a scenario in which the army can be anticipated to give no respect to fighters and non-combatants equally."

15. Haiti

The long-suffering people of Haiti eventually elected a genuinely democratic administration headed by Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1991, over 200 years after the slave uprising that formed the country of Haiti and beat Napoleon's forces. However, after just eight months in power, President Aristide was deposed in a US-backed military coup, and the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) hired a paramilitary unit named FRAPH to attack and destroy Aristide's Lavalas movement in Haiti. The CIA hired FRAPH commander Emmanuel "Toto" Constant and transferred weaponry from Florida. When President Clinton sent an occupying force to restore Aristide to power in 1994, FRAPH members imprisoned by US troops were released on instructions from Washington, and the CIA continued to use FRAPH as a criminal organization to attack Aristide and Lavalas. Following Aristide's re-election as president for the second time in 2000, a group of 200 US special forces trained 600 former FRAPH members and others in the Dominican Republic in preparation for a second coup. They initiated a violent campaign to destabilize Haiti in 2004, which served as a pretext for US soldiers to arrive in Haiti and depose Aristide.

Honduras 16

Honduras' 2009 coup resulted in extreme repression and the execution of political opponents, union activists, and journalists by death squad. At the time of the coup, US authorities denied any involvement and utilized technicalities to avoid cutting off US military assistance, as required by US law. However, according to two Wikileaks cables, the US Embassy was the major power broker in dealing with the aftermath of the coup and constructing a regime that is currently persecuting and killing its people.

Indonesia is number seventeen.

Under the guise of combating a failed coup, General Suharto took actual authority from President Sukarno in 1965 and began an orgy of mass murder that murdered at least 500,000 people. Later, US officials acknowledged to giving names of 5,000 Communist Party members to be executed. According to political officer Robert Martens, "It was a huge benefit to the army. They most likely murdered many people, and I most likely have a lot of blood on my hands, but that's not all terrible. There are times when you must attack quickly and decisively."

18. Iran

Iran may be the most instructive illustration of a CIA coup that brought the US enormous long-term troubles. The CIA and the UK's MI6 ousted Mohammed Mossadegh's popularly elected government in 1953. Iran's oil sector had been nationalized by a majority resolution of parliament, ending a BP monopoly that only paid Iran a 16 percent royalty on its oil. Iran fought a British naval blockade and international economic sanctions for two years. After President Eisenhower assumed office in 1953, the CIA decided to interfere in response to a British request. After the original attempt failed and the Shah and his family fled to Italy, the CIA spent millions of dollars bribing military commanders and paying thugs to incite violence in Tehran's streets. Mossadegh was eventually deposed, and the Shah resumed his cruel Western puppet reign until the Iranian Revolution in 1979.

Israel (19th).

In the same way that the United States uses its economic and military power, sophisticated propaganda system, and position as a Permanent Member of the United Nations Security Council to violate international law with impunity, it also uses the same tools to shield its ally Israel from accountability for international crimes. Since 1966, the United States has used its Security Council veto 83 times, more than the other four Permanent Members combined, with 42 of those vetoes relating to Israel and/or Palestine. Amnesty International reported only last week that "Israeli troops have shown a callous disdain for human life by murdering scores of Palestinian civilians, including children, in the occupied West Bank with near absolute impunity over the last three years." The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Occupied Territories, Richard Falk, criticized the 2008 assault on Gaza as a "major breach of international law," adding that countries such as the United States "provided weapons and backed the blockade are involved in the crimes." The Leahy Law compels the United States to withhold military funding from troops that violate human rights, although it has never been applied to Israel. Israel continues to develop settlements in occupied territory in contravention of the Fourth Geneva Convention, making compliance with Security Council resolutions requiring it to evacuate from occupied territory more difficult. However, Israel continues to operate outside the rule of law, protected from responsibility by its great benefactor, the United States.

20. Iraq

After General Abdul Qasim overthrew the British-backed monarchy in 1958, the CIA recruited a 22-year-old Iraqi called Saddam Hussein to murder the new president. Hussein and his group bungled the task, and he escaped to Lebanon after being shot in the leg by one of his associates. The CIA leased him a residence in Beirut and subsequently relocated him to Cairo, where he was paid as an operative of Egyptian intelligence and visited the US Embassy often. Qasim was slain in a CIA-backed Baathist revolution in 1963, and the CIA provided the new administration with a list of at least 4,000 communists to be executed, as it had done in Guatemala and Indonesia. However, once in power, the Baathist revolutionary government was no Western puppet, nationalizing Iraq's oil sector, pursuing an Arab nationalist foreign policy, and constructing the greatest education and health systems in the Arab world. Saddam Hussein became president in 1979, purging political opponents and launching a catastrophic war against Iran. The United States Defense Information Agency (DIA) supplied satellite intelligence to target chemical weapons that the West assisted him in developing, and Donald Rumsfeld and other US officials hailed him as a friend against Iran. Only when Iraq invaded Kuwait and Hussein became a more valuable foe did US propaganda describe him as "the new Hitler." After the United States invaded Iraq under false pretenses in 2003, the CIA formed 27 brigades of "Special Police," combining the most brutal elements of Saddam Hussein's security forces with the Iranian-trained Badr militia to form death squads that murdered tens of thousands of mostly Sunni Arab men and boys in Baghdad and elsewhere in a reign of terror that continues to this day.

21. Korea

When United States soldiers landed in Korea in 1945, they were met by authorities of the Korean People's Republic (KPR), which had been founded by resistance organizations that had disarmed surrendering Japanese forces and began to restore law and order across the country. General Hodge had them removed from his position and the southern part of Korea put under US military rule. In contrast, Russian soldiers in the north recognized the KPR, resulting in Korea's long-term partition. In 1948, the United States flew in Syngman Rhee, a conservative Korean refugee, and installed him as President of South Korea. Rhee rose to power as a tyrant on an anti-communist crusade, detaining and torturing suspected communists, violently suppressing rebellions, murdering 100,000 people, and pledging to take over North Korea. He was at least partially responsible for the commencement of the Korean War and the decision by the Allies to attack North Korea after South Korea was regained. Massive student demonstrations led him to resign in 1960.

22. Laos

The CIA started providing aviation assistance to French soldiers in Laos in 1950 and stayed for 25 years. Between 1958 and 1960, the CIA staged at least three coups to keep the expanding socialist Pathet Lao out of power. It collaborated with right-wing Laotian drug barons like General Phoumi Nosavan, smuggling opium between Burma, Laos, and Vietnam and defending his opium trade monopoly in Laos. To battle the Pathet Lao, the CIA formed a covert mercenary army of 30,000 veterans of past guerrilla conflicts from Thailand, Korea, Vietnam, and the Philippines in 1962. As a huge number of American GIs in Vietnam became addicted to heroin, the CIA's Air America delivered opium from the Plain of Jars to General Vang Pao's heroin factories in Long Tieng and Vientiane for distribution to Vietnam. When the CIA failed to defeat the Pathet Lao, the United States bombarded Laos nearly as hard as Cambodia, dropping 2 million tons of bombs on the country.

23. Libya

NATO's intervention in Libya exemplified President Obama's "hidden, quiet, media-free" approach to war. NATO's bombing campaign was falsely justified to the UN Security Council as an effort to protect civilians, and the instrumental role of Western and other foreign special forces on the ground was well-hidden, even when Qatari special forces (including ex-ISI Pakistani mercenaries) led the final assault on the Bab Al-Aziziya headquarters in Tripoli. NATO carried out 7,700 air attacks, killing 30,000 to 100,000 people, bombing loyalist communities to rubble and ethnic cleansing, and the nation is in disarray as Western-trained and equipped Islamist militants grab territory and oil installations and compete for control. The Misrata militia is one of the most brutal and strong, having been trained and equipped by Western special forces. Protesters have just attacked Tripoli's Congress building for the fourth or fifth time in recent months, and two elected Representatives have been shot and injured as they flee.

Mexico 24.

Mexico's drug conflicts have lately claimed 100,000 lives. Los Zetas is the most brutal of the drug organizations. The Zetas are described by US authorities as "the most technologically advanced, smart, and deadliest drug gang operating in Mexico." Mexican security troops were trained by US special forces at the School of the Americas at Fort Benning, Georgia, and Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to develop the Zetas cartel.

Myanmar (25th)

Following the Chinese Revolution, Kuomintang generals went into northern Burma and became formidable drug lords, aided by Thai military protection, Taiwanese money, and CIA air transport and logistical assistance. Opium output in Burma increased from 18 tons in 1958 to 600 tons in 1970. The CIA kept these soldiers as a deterrent to communist China, but they turned the "golden triangle" into the world's greatest opium production. The majority of the opium was transported by mule trains into Thailand, where it was distributed to heroin laboratories in Hong Kong and Malaysia by other CIA associates. Around 1970, CIA collaborator General Vang Pao established additional facilities in Laos to provide heroin to GIs in Vietnam.

Nicaragua is ranked 26th.

Anastasio Somosa controlled Nicaragua as his personal kingdom for 43 years, with perfect impunity, while his National Guard committed every crime conceivable, from murders and torture to extortion and rape. After he was deposed by the Sandinista Revolution in 1979, the CIA recruited, trained, and backed "contra" mercenaries to enter Nicaragua and carry out terrorism in order to destabilize the nation. The International Court of Justice ruled in 1986 that the United States committed aggression against Nicaragua by deploying contras and mining Nicaraguan ports. The court ordered the US to stop its assault and pay Nicaragua war reparations, but they were never paid. The United States' answer was to proclaim that it would no longer recognize the ICJ's binding authority, essentially putting itself outside the rule of international law.

Pakistan is ranked 27th, Saudi Arabia is ranked 28th, and Turkey is ranked 29th.

Larry Johnson, a veteran CIA and State Department terrorism analyst, told me after reading my previous AlterNet post on the failing war on terror, "The major issue in estimating the terrorist threat is correctly defining state support. Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey are the main perpetrators now, as opposed to 20 years ago. Despite right-wing/neocon claims, Iran is not actively inciting and/or assisting terrorism." US military assistance to Pakistan has totalled $18.6 billion over the last 12 years. The United States has just concluded the biggest weapons sale in history with Saudi Arabia. Turkey is also a long-standing NATO member. All three of the world's largest state sponsors of terrorism are allies of the United States.

Panama 30.

When Manuel Noriega was the commander of military intelligence in Panama in 1971, US drug enforcement officers sought to capture him. They had enough evidence to convict him of drug trafficking, but he was also a long-time CIA operative and informant, therefore he was untouchable, much like other drug-dealing CIA agents from Marseille to Macao. During the Carter administration, he was temporarily released, but he continued to receive at least $100,000 a year from the US Treasury. As he progressed to become Panama's de facto dictator, he became even more essential to the CIA, reporting on meetings with Fidel Castro and Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega and aiding US covert warfare in Central America. Noriega most likely stopped distributing drugs about 1985, well before the United States charged him in 1988. The indictment served as a pretext for the United States' invasion of Panama in 1989, the primary goal of which was to give the United States more authority over Panama at the cost of at least 2,000 deaths.

Philippines No. 31

A task group of 500 US JSOC personnel has undertaken clandestine operations in the southern Philippines since the US commenced its so-called war on terror in 2001. Under Obama's "pivot to Asia," the United States is raising military funding to the Philippines, from $12 million in 2011 to $50 million this year. However, human rights groups in the Philippines warn that the increased assistance corresponds with increasing military death squad operations against civilians. At least 158 individuals have been slain by death squads in the last three years.

32. Syria

In late 2011, when President Obama authorized transferring weapons and militiamen from Libya to the "Free Syrian Army" camp in Turkey in unmarked NATO aircraft, he was calculating that the US and its allies could recreate the "successful" removal of the Libyan government. Everyone involved knew Syria would be a longer and bloodier struggle, but they bet that the eventual outcome would be the same, despite the fact that 55 percent of Syrians told pollsters they still backed Assad. A few months later, Western politicians sabotaged Kofi Annan's peace proposal with "Plan B," "Friends of Syria." This was not an alternative peace plan, but rather a commitment to escalation, supplying assured assistance, money, and weaponry to the jihadis in Syria in order to ensure that they rejected the Annan peace plan and continued fighting. This action effectively guaranteed the fate of millions of Syrians. Over the last two years, Qatar has spent $3 billion and flown planeloads of weapons into the country, Saudi Arabia has shipped weapons from Croatia, and Western and Arab royalist special forces have trained thousands of increasingly radicalized fundamentalist jihadis who have joined forces with al-Qaeda. The Geneva II talks were a half-hearted attempt to resurrect the Annan peace plan from 2012, but Western insistence that a "political transition" meant Assad's imminent retirement demonstrates that Western elites still prefer regime change above peace. According to Phyllis Bennis, the US and its allies are still prepared to fight until the last Syrian is killed.

Uruguay is number 33.

Many of the foreign authorities with whom the United States has collaborated have benefitted from their assistance in American crimes committed across the globe. However, when Uruguayan Police Chief Alejandro Otero protested to Americans instructing his personnel in the technique of torture in 1970, he was demoted. Dan Mitrione worked for the United States Office of Public Safety, a branch of the United States Agency for International Development. Torturing homeless people to death with electric shocks was apparently part of Mitrione's training exercises to show his trainees how far they could go.

Yugoslavia 34.

NATO's aerial bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 constituted a clear act of aggression in violation of UN Charter Article 2.4. According to her deputy James Rubin, when British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook informed Secretary of State Albright that the United Kingdom was experiencing "difficulties with its attorneys" over the planned assault, she advised him that the United Kingdom could "find new lawyers." The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), commanded by Hashim Thaci, served as NATO's proxy ground force in its invasion against Yugoslavia. A 2010 Council of Europe report and a book by Carla Del Ponte, the former prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, back up long-standing allegations that, at the time of the NATO invasion, Thaci led the Drenica group, which sent over 400 captured Serbs to Albania to be killed so that their organs could be extracted and sold for transplant. Hashim Thaci is presently the Prime Minister of Kosovo, a NATO protectorate.

35. Zaire

Patrice Lumumba, head of the pan-Africanist Mouvement National Congolais, participated in the Congo's independence movement and became the country's first elected Prime Minister in 1960. He was toppled in a CIA-backed coup conducted by his Army Chief of Staff, Joseph-Desire Mobutu. Lumumba was executed by a firing squad commanded by a Belgian mercenary after Mobutu gave him up to the Belgian-backed rebels and Belgian mercenaries he had been battling in Katanga region. Mobutu banned elections and declared himself president in 1965, ruling as a dictator for the next 30 years. He executed political opponents in public hangings, tortured others to death, and finally embezzled at least $5 billion although Zaire, as he called it, remained one of the world's poorest nations. However, the United States maintained its backing for Mobutu. Despite President Carter's public distancing, Zaire continued to receive half of all US military funding to Sub-Saharan Africa. When Congress chose to slash military funding, Carter and commercial groups in the United States campaigned to restore it. Only in the 1990s did US backing for Mobutu begin to wane, until he was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in 1997 and died shortly after.

***

From 1986 until 1989, Major Joe Blair was the director of teaching at the United States School of the Americas (SOA). He characterized the SOA training he supervised as follows: "The theory taught was that if you want information, you should employ physical assault, false incarceration, threats to family members, and murder. If you can't acquire the information you need, if you can't get that individual to shut up or stop what they're doing, you murder them—with one of your death squads."

The standard reaction of US authorities to the discovery of the systemic crimes I've outlined is that such things may have happened in the past but do not represent long-term or continuing US policy. In 2001, the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC) took over the School of the Americas, which was relocated from the Panama Canal Zone to Fort Benning, Georgia. Joe Blair, on the other hand, has something to say about it. In 2002, he testified in a trial of SOA Watch protestors, saying, "Apart from the name, there are no significant changes. They teach the same courses that I did, but with different course titles and manuals."

A great deal of human suffering and world issues might be addressed if the United States made a true commitment to human rights and the rule of law, rather than one that it only applies cynically and opportunistically to its opponents, but never to itself or its friends.

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1 Comment

  1. Edwitness on June 30, 2022 at 5:33 pm

    All done with the consent and approval of her Vatican rulers. The deep state is her army that whips the world into her servitude. But, her day of destruction is coming on like a freight train now.
    Maranatha!!

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